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Independent t test SPSS

SPSS Independent T-Test Example A scientist wants to know if children from divorced parents score differently on some psychological tests than children from non divorced parents. The data collected are in divorced.sav, part of which is shown below. The last 4 variables in our data file hold our test scores The standard way to organize your data within the SPSS Data View when you want to run an independent samples t test is to have a dependent variable in one column and a grouping variable in a second column. Here's what it might look like

PPT - Independent Samples T-Test Practice Problem 1a

Independent-Samples T Test Data Considerations. Data. The values of the quantitative variable of interest are in a single column in the data file. The procedure uses a grouping variable with two values to separate the cases into two groups. The grouping variable can be numeric (values such as 1 and 2 or 6.25 and 12.5) or short string (such as yes and no). As an alternative, you can use a. Independent t-test - SPSS (Example 1) - YouTube. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features. © 2021 Google LLC

Power Analysis of Independent-Samples T Test. This feature requires IBM® SPSS® Statistics Base Edition. Power analysis plays a pivotal role in a study plan, design, and conduction. The calculation of power is usually before any sample data have been collected, except possibly from a small pilot study. The precise estimation of the power may tell investigators how likely it is that a. T-Test bei unabhängigen Stichproben mit SPSS Um diesen T-Test durchzuführen wählen Sie im Menü Analysieren → Mittelwerte vergleichen die Option T-Test bei... Im nun erscheinenden Dialogfeld verschieben Sie die Variable, bei der Sie prüfen wollen, ob sich die Gruppen... SPSS muss noch wissen, welchen.

I demonstrate how to create a histogram to complement an independent samples t-test in SPSS The independent-samples t-test is a special case of ANOVA. And if we'd run it as an ANOVA, R2 = η2 (eta squared): both are proportions of variance accounted for by the independent variable. So why should we use a different effect size measure if we compare 2 instead of 3+ subpopulations In der Tabelle Test bei unabhängigen Stichproben finden wir die Ergebnisse des ungepaarten t-Tests. Für jede Testvariable berechnet SPSS zwei Spalten: eine für Varianzhomogenität und die zweite bei mangelnder Varianzhomogenität (Welch-Test) Independent Samples t-test in SPSS Tests the mean difference between two independent groups; for example, left-handed people will score higher on an IQ test, on average, then right-handed people. This is a test for making an inference to population parameters (viz., population mean IQs; H o: ì left = ì right)

SPSS Independent Samples T-Test - Beginners Tutoria

  1. Independent Samples T-Test - What Is It? An independent samples t-test evaluates if 2 populations have equal means on some variable. If the population means are really equal, then the sample means will probably differ a little bit but not too much. Very different sample means are highly unlikely if the population means are equal
  2. Run an Independent Samples t Test To run an Independent Samples t Test in SPSS, click Analyze > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T Test. The Independent-Samples T Test window opens where you will specify the variables to be used in the analysis. All of the variables in your dataset appear in the list on the left side
  3. Interpret the SPSS output for an independent two-sample t-test.ASK SPSS Tutorial Serie
  4. an independent samples t-test for 2 groups or a one-way ANOVA for 3+ groups. Both tests require the homogeneity assumption: the population variances of the dependent variable must equal for all groups. You can ignore this assumption if you have roughly equal sample sizes for each group
  5. e whether there is a difference between two independent, unrelated groups (e.g., undergraduate versus PhD students, athletes given supplement A versus athletes given.
  6. e if there are any differences between two continuous variables on the same scale from two unrelated groups. For example, comparing height differences between a sample of male and females. The assumptions of an independent t-test

Independent Samples T Test in SPSS - Quick SPSS Tutoria

ungepaarter t-Test Ungepaarter t-Test: Voraussetzungen. Wie bei den meisten statistischen Tests, müssen auch beim gepaarten t-Test gewisse Voraussetzungen erfüllt sein, damit wir ihn interpretieren können. Der ungepaarte t-Test hat sechs Voraussetzungen, die wir hier besprechen werden. Die ersten drei Voraussetzungen beziehen sich auf das Design der Studie, während die letzten drei. A lesson on how to perform an independent sample t-test using SPSS/PASW. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new.

SPSS Independent Samples T-Test Tutorial. This tutorial quickly walks you through the correct steps for running an independent samples t-test in SPSS. Run the analysis yourself on our downloadable practice data file or look up some basics such as the assumptions or effect size The independent t-test, also called the two sample t-test, independent-samples t-test or student's t-test, is an inferential statistical test that determines whether there is a statistically significant difference between the means in two unrelated groups. Null and alternative hypotheses for the independent t-test Levene's test rejected the null hypothesis of equal variances between the two groups (F=20.613, p < .001) so an adjusted version of the independent samples t-test that relaxes this assumption was chosen. The difference in means (difference = .03837) was not statistically significant, t(4724.670) = 1.371, p=.170

This is a bad thing, but SPSS takes this into account by giving you slightly different results in the second row. If the Sig. value in this example was greater less than .05, we would have read from the second row. So we've got a row . Now that we have a row to read from, it is time to look at the results for our T-test. These results will tell us if the Means for the two groups were statistically different (significantly different) or if they were relatively the same Using Independent samples t-test in Research. This easy tutorial will show you how to run the Independent samples t-test in SPSS, and how to interpret the result.. The Independent Samples t-Test compares the means of two independent groups in order to determine whether there is statistical evidence that the associated population means are significantly different Nesse vídeo veremos como fazer um teste-t independente (que compara as médias de dois grupos) no SPSS, e como reportar os resultados.Exercícios:Para treinar,.. SPSS has no specific procedure or dialog box to run a one-tailed test for differences of means. The procedure for the one-tailed test is the same as for the two-tailed test. There are two issues here, though. First is to have an idea of which direction you want the t-statistic to go. If you expect that group 1 has a higher mean than group 2, you will be looking for a positive t-statistic.

Just fill in the blanks by using the SPSS output . Let's start by filing in the Mean and Standard Deviation for each condition. Now we'll finish up by filling in the values related to the T-Test. Here we enter the degrees of freedom (df), the t-value (t), and the Sig. (2-tailed) value (often referred to as the p value). Once the blanks are full You have a sentence that looks very. Unlike the independent-samples t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test allows you to draw different conclusions about your data depending on the assumptions you make about your data's distribution. These conclusions can range from simply stating whether the two populations differ through to determining if there are differences in medians between groups. These different conclusions hinge on the shape of the distributions of your data, which we explain more about later This test computes a t value for the data that is then related to a p-value for the determination of significance. One of the most recognized statistical programs is SPSS, which generates a variety of test results for sets of data. You can use SPSS to generate two tables for the results of an independent t-test Independent T Test - using SPSS Prepare your data source as below format. 1 is Finance, 2 is CS. In the menu, navigate to Analyze > Compare Means > Indepent-Samples T Test Select the variables as below, then click on Define Group

The independent t-test compares the means of two unrelated/independent groups measured on the Interval or ratio scale. The SPSS t-test procedure allows the testing of hypothesis when variances are assumed to be equal or when are not equal and also provide the t -value for both assumptions SPSS has no specific procedure or dialog box to run a one-tailed test for differences of means. The procedure for the one-tailed test is the same as for the two-tailed test. There are two issues here, though. First is to have an idea of which direction you want the t-statistic to go

Independent-Samples T Test - IB

Independent t-test - SPSS (Example 1) - YouTub

Power Analysis of Independent-Samples T Test

  1. Run a One Sample t Test To run a One Sample t Test in SPSS, click Analyze > Compare Means > One-Sample T Test. The One-Sample T Test window opens where you will specify the variables to be used in the analysis. All of the variables in your dataset appear in the list on the left side
  2. The Independent-Samples t Test dialog box will appear: Select the dependent variable (s) that you want to test by clicking on it in the left hand pane of the Independent-Samples t Test dialog box. Then click on the upper arrow button to move the variable into the Test Variable (s) pane
  3. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare memory for words in sugar and no sugar conditions. There was a significant difference in the scores for sugar (M=4.2, SD=1.3) and no sugar (M=2.2, SD=0.84) conditions; t (8)=2.89, p = 0.20. These results suggest that sugar really does have an effect on memory for words
  4. Independent T-Test is used when two groups that are under comparison are independent of each other. Paired T-Test is used when the two groups under the comparison are dependent on each other. The T-Test statistics is usually used in cases where the experimental subject can be divided into two independent groups, group A and Group B
  5. The independent t test evaluates whether the means for two independent groups are significantly different from each other. It is used for just 2 groups of samples. If you have more than 2 groups of samples, you should use ANOVA
  6. The Independent Sample T-Test in SPSS The independent samples t-test, or Student's t-test, is the most popular test to test for the difference in means. It requires that both samples are independently collected, and tests the null hypothesis that both samples are from the same population and therefore do not differ in their mean scores. Our research question for the independent sample t-test.
  7. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is a non-parametric analog to the independent samples t-test and can be used when you do not assume that the dependent variable is a normally distributed interval variable (you only assume that the variable is at least ordinal)

An independent samples t-test compares the means for two groups. A paired sample t-test compares means from the same group at different times - one year apart, for example. A one sample t-test tests the mean of a single group against a known mean The independent-samples t test is commonly referred to as a between-groups design, and can also be used to analyze a control and experimental group. With an independent-samples t test, each case must have scores on two variables, the grouping (independent) variable and the test (dependent) variable. The grouping variable divides cases into two mutually exclusive groups or categories, such as. Note that SPSS will first display a test on homogeneity of variances. SPSS then computes two test statistics for the T test, one for the case of equal variances in both groups and one for unequal variances. If the variances differ significantly, the latter test statistic and the significance value that accompanies it should be used independent sample t test is a test which is carried out by taking samples independently SPSS Output viewer Independent Samples Test 31. 31 Example 3.1 Using SPSSExample 3.1 Using SPSS (cont.)(cont.) SPSS gives theSPSS gives the meansmeans for each of thefor each of the conditions (Pizza Mean = 2 and Beerconditions (Pizza Mean = 2 and Beer Mean = 4).Mean = 4). In addition, SPSS provides.

T-Test mit SPSS - die Grundlagen - STATISTIK - verständlic

Independent-Samples t-Test. SPSS ? Independent-Samples t-TestThe independent-samples t-test is one of several inferential statistical tests in the t-test family. The purpose of the independent-samples t-test is to examine whether there is a statistically significant group mean (average) difference on a scale (numerical) business outcome variable. For example, a researcher might be interested. Independent Samples t-Test (or 2-Sample t-Test) Advanced Research Methods in Psychology - lecture - Matthew Rockloff When to use the independent samples t-test The independent samples t-test is probably the single most widely used test in statistics. It is used to compare differences between separate groups. In Psychology, these groups are often composed by randomly assigning research.

Step by Step Independent Samples T-Test in SPSS 21 | The main use of Independent sample t test is to compare the average of two case groups. In order for the results of the study to be good, the subjects studied should be randomly selected for both groups being compared. This is done if there is a difference in the answer because of the. T-SPSS.docx T Tests and Related Statistics: SPSS One Sample T Tests Independent Samples T Tests Correlated T Tests Nonparametric Tests Before you boot up SPSS, obtain the following data files from my SPSS Data Page: Howell.sav, Tunnel2.sav, W_Loss.sav One-Sample T-Tests The Howell.sav data file is described in the document Howell&Huessy.pdf. Read the description and then read Howell.sav into. The t-test assumes: It is used when there is random assignment and only two sets of measurement to compare. There are two main types of t-test: A normal distribution (parametric data) Underlying variances are equal (if not, use Welch's test) Independent-measures t-test: when samples are not matched. Matched-pair t-test: When samples appear in pairs (eg. before-and-after). A single-sample t.

Histogram for Independent Samples t-test - SPSS - YouTub

  1. Independent t-test with covariates? Hi all, I have two independent groups I want to test whether their values differ significantly for a number of parameters studied
  2. To run a Paired Samples t Test in SPSS, click Analyze > Compare Means > Paired-Samples T Test. The Paired-Samples T Test window opens where you will specify the variables to be used in the analysis. All of the variables in your dataset appear in the list on the left side
  3. higher in the posttest condition. The question is whether this difference is large.
  4. Independent-Samples t Test with SPSS. In your research, you may find that you must compare the means of two samples related to one particular variable. For example, you may have population samples from two ethnic groups that you wish to compare against income level. In these cases, you will need to use an independent-samples t test. This Application Assignment gives you an opportunity to try.
  5. e how to perform a two sample t-test within SPSS given only summary information. Using a slightly modified example problem from a prior exercise: Example: A scientist.
  6. One-Sample) t-tests, Independent-Sample t-tests, Difference-Sample (or Matched- or Paired-Sample) t-tests. Unfortunately, SPSS does not provide procedures for running Z-tests. For the following examples, we have created a data set based on cartoon 9.1 (Cow Poetry). To obtain our data, we have randomly drawn a sample of 30 cows from the population of cows owned by Farmer Perry. With the.
  7. es whether there is a difference in the mean value between the two groups. Therefore, we need two variables to conduct independent sample t-test: OnlineSPSS.com . A global leader in providing statistics help services organization that provides tutoring and general assistance to students doing their research papers, assignments, reports, projects, Master's.

Cohen's D - Effect Size for T-Test - SPSS Tutorial

T-test in SPSS. SPSS is one of the conventional technologies used to run the t-test. Before you embark on your SPSS test for independent samples, there are three important things that you should do: Develop a hypothesis statement Decide if your test is one-tailored or two-tailored Provide your alpha level Once you have done all this then follow these simple steps to carry out a t-test on SPSS. Alternatively, a simple bar chart could be used to visually present the results from statistical tests such as the independent-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and many more. In such cases, a simple bar chart could be used to illustrate the difference in mean scores between the categories of a nominal or ordinal variable. For example, a simple bar chart could be used to illustrate the. Um für den t-Test SPSS zu nutzen, folgt man dem Reiter: Analysieren → Mittelwerte vergleichen SPSS Auswertung: T-Test berechnen. Beim t-Test in SPSS werden drei Fälle unterschieden: eine Stichprobe - hierbei wird untersucht, ob der Mittelwert eines gemessenen Merkmals signifikant von einem vorgegebenen Wert abweicht. unabhängige Stichproben - hierbei wird untersucht, ob sich die. (Non-parametric equivalent to independent samples t-test) The Mann-Whitney U test is used to compare whether there is a difference in the dependent variable for two independent groups. It compares whether the distribution of the dependent variable is the same for the two groups and therefore from the same population. The test ranks all of the dependent values i.e. lowest value gets a score of. t-Test. There are also a few different versions of the t-test, but the most common one is the t-test for a difference in means. Definition. We use a t-test for a difference in means when we want to formally test whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between two population means. The hypotheses of the test are as follows

Ungepaarter t-Test: Auswertung und Interpretation bei

The Independent-Samples T test is used when there are two experimental conditions and different participants were assigned to each condition. Contents. 1 Independent variable; 2 Dependent variable; 3 Assumptions; 4 SPSS procedure; 5 Options; 6 Syntax; 7 Output; 8 Non-parametric alternative; 9 External WikiPedia link; Independent variable. One independent variable containing two levels. For. Struggling to understand how to use SPSS for your analysis? Every semester I face this issue with my students: Panic and insecurity to run certain analysis or to use SPSS. So I decided to develop a series of tutorial videos to help you run your analysis. Here, we'll discuss the Independent Samples T-Test. What is [

  1. Independent-Samples t Test with SPSS In your research, you may find that you must compare the means of two samples related to one particular variable. For example, you may have population samples from two ethnic groups that you wish to compare against income level. In these cases, you will need to use an independent-samples t test
  2. For an independent t-test, SPSS reports the test at a 2-tailed significance level by default. To obtain a one-tailed probability (when your hypothesis is directional) simply divide the p-value in half. In this case, we could test a one-tailed hypothesis that people who perceive a relationship between a fighting couple will be less willing to intervene in a fight than those who do not, as this.
  3. Der t-Test für unabhängige Stichproben ist der wohl am häufigsten verwendete Signifikanztest. Er wird verwendet um zu untersuchen, ob sich zwei unabhängige Stichproben hinsichtlich des Mittelwertes einer Zielvariable unterschieden. Lassen Sie uns hierzu zunächst klären, was zwei unabhängige Stichproben sind. Unabhängige Stichproben liegen dann vor, wenn Sie zwei Stichproben haben, die.
  4. Der T-Test mit zwei Stichproben ist relativ robust gegenüber Abweichungen von der Normalverteilung. Achten Sie bei der grafischen Überprüfung von Verteilungen darauf, dass diese symmetrisch sind und keine Ausreißer enthalten. Abrufen eines t-Tests bei unabhängigen Stichproben. Für diese Funktion ist die Option Statistics Base erforderlich. Wählen Sie in den Menüs Folgendes aus.
  5. SPSS (Abbildung 5) gibt bei der Durchführung eines t-Tests für unabhängige Stichproben automatisch sowohl die Ergebnisse des t-Tests bei Varianzhomogenität (Zeile Varianzen sind gleich) als auch bei Varianzheterogenität aus (Zeile Varianzen sind nicht gleich). Der Test, welcher bei Varianzheterogenität berichtet wird, wird auch als Welch-Test bezeichnet, da es sich um einen t-Test.
  6. I can't run Independent-sample t test using SPSS. SPSS give me this error: The Independent Samples table is not produced. null null a. t cannot be computed because at least one of the groups is empty. The data is as following: 10.67 6.00 7.78 4.00 4.28 3.00 9.03 3.00 6.43 2.00 4.25 3.00 2.42 1.00 11.73 7.00 5.28 4.00 9.12 6.00 8.93 5.00 7.50 5.00 I done: after input data > Analyze > Compare.

Independent Samples T-Test - Beginners Tutoria

Bei SPSS lässt sich kein einseitiger t-Test berechnen! Es wird immer ein zweiseitiger Test ausgegeben. Was tun? Wenn die Daten bei Gruppenstatistiken in Richtung der Hypothese gehen (also hier geringere Fernsehdauer bei den sehr Zufriedenen), kann der p-Wert einfach halbiert werden, um den wahren p-Wert für den einseitigen Test zu erhalten. Gehen die Daten jedoch in die entgegengesetzte. Der gepaarte t-Test ist einer der einfachsten statistischen Tests. Er wird angewendet, wenn wir genau zwei Messungen haben und diese unabhängig voneinander sind. Dies ist beispielsweise der Fall, wenn für dieselbe Versuchsperson zu zwei verschiedenen Zeitpunkten oder Bedingungen dieselbe unabhängige Variable erhoben wird Help with SPSS - Independent sample T-test + Dummy variables, what to do?.

Overview: T-tests are the perhaps one of the most simple types of statistical tests. The goal here is simply determining if one mean is statistically different than another mean. When to use an independent samples t-test: You perform an independent samples t-test (also known as a between subjects t-test) when comparing two continuous, unpaired means. Means are unpaired when the scores in one. required to test the difference between males and females in scores of 3 different tests. One of the tests works, but the other 2 dont, saying that the group is missing. Needs to be finished today as I dont have SPSS at home. Please help me, this is the first time Ive used SPSS. Thanks guys : Back to the Independent Samples T test box . After defining your groups, you will go back to the box you had been working in. You have already moved the IV to the appropriate place. Now it's time to move the DV. You want to move the DV to the Test Variables box. To do this, click on the variable name to highlight it. Then, click on the arrow. This quick tutorial will explain how to test whether sample data is normally distributed in the SPSS statistics package. It is a requirement of many parametric statistical tests - for example, the i ndependent-samples t test - that data is normally distributed. There are a number of different ways to test this requirement

Independent Samples t Test - SPSS Tutorials - LibGuides at

Interpret SPSS output for an independent t-test - YouTub

A Step by Step, clear and concise guide to perform Two-Sample T-Test using SPSS. When do we use Two-Sample T-Test? Two-Sample T-Test is also known as independent T-Test or between-subjects T-test... Independent T-Test The statistical test. Independent t-test. We will write a custom Dissertation on Application of T-Tests: Data Files and SPSS specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. 301 certified writers online. Learn More. The Problem.

Levene's Test - Quick Introduction - SPSS Tutorial

Independent T-Test (PDF) This resource is provided under the Creative Commons Licence CC-BY-NC-SA and was developed by statstutor and the sigma Network. SPSS Handbook - SPSS T-Tests (PDF) This SPSS handbook is here to help you run through inferential statistics in SPSS. (Collings, R. (2013) SPSS Handbooks, Research Methods & Data Analysis. Independent t-test is just a special case of linear regression. Given an outcome y and a binary indicator d, where d=0 for group A and d=1 for group B: y = β 0 + β 1 d The intercept β 0 is the mean of group A, the combined term β 0 + β 1 is the mean of group B Hi, I'm a graduate student working with the SPSS graduate pack and keep getting warnings when trying to execute an independent samples t test. The warnings say that one of the groups is empty and the test can't be executed. I've defined the groups (using a string variable as grouping, y/n coded 1/2 for whether or not participants have health insurance) and there are no gaps in the data data file somewhere and open it with SPSS. c. Analyze | Compare Means | Independent-Samples T Test (this means to click on the Analyze menu item, then click on the Compare Means option in the drop down menu and then click on the Independent-Samples T Test option from the menu.) d. Move the dependent variable (the variable measured by the. Die Signifikanz bei einem t-Test lässt sich einfach errechnen. Das Interpretieren ist dagegen schon schwerer. Für Studenten oft verwirrend: Nehme ich jetzt den Signifikanzwert in der Zeile Varianzen sind gleich oder Varianzen sind nicht gleich? Das hängt wiederum von einem anderen Wert ab. Dazu liefert uns SPSS den Levene-Test. Den Wert der obere Zeile, also Varianzen sind.

Reporting an independent sample t test 1. Reporting an Independent Sample t-test Note - that the reporting format shown in this learning module is for APA. For other formats consult specific format guides. It is also recommended to consult the latest APA manual to compare what is described in this learning module with the most updated formats. Independent samples t-tests should not be conducted on continuous variables that violate the assumption of homogeneity of variance. Independent samples t-tests should only be conducted on continuous outcomes between groups that have equal or similar variances. The steps for assessing the assumption of homogeneity of variance in SPSS 1 3. t-Test mit SPSS 4. SPSS 5. Literatur. 1. Einführung. Ein t-Test für unabhängige Stichproben lässt sich dann anwenden, wenn die Mittelwerte von zwei unterschiedlichen Stichproben miteinander verglichen und die Unterschiede auf Signifikanz getestet werden sollen. Dieser t-Test eignet sich damit zur Untersuchung einer Unterschiedshypothese zwischen zwei unabhängigen Stichproben. Die zu.

1 The Independent-Samples and Paired-Samples t Tests in SPSS versions 21-22 This guide uses the Rikers 1989 data set for Independent Samples test and the NELS dataset for the Paired Samples test. All t Tests are means comparisons: A One Sample t test compares a sample average to a population mean. An Independent Samples t test compares the averages of two groups whose members ar Using an independent samples t test, I am comparing the performance of 2 groups on an activity, based on the percentage of items correct (the percentage of total items correct, as well as percentage of items correct for four sub-domains of the activity). The n of one group is 23, and the n of the other is 34. Due to a ceiling effect, my data are non-normally distributed for both groups. At the.

2 independent sample t test spss

Der t-Test ist ein Begriff aus der mathematischen Statistik, er bezeichnet eine Gruppe von Hypothesentests mit t-verteilter Testprüfgröße.Oft ist jedoch mit dem t-Test der Einstichproben- bzw. Zweistichproben-t-Test auf einen Mittelwertunterschied gemeint.Der Einstichproben-t-Test (auch Einfacher t-Test; engl. one-sample t-test) prüft anhand des Mittelwertes einer Stichprobe, ob der. Basically i want to run an independent t-test, but i only want to test part of my population. When doing regressions, I can choose something called selection variable to only choose part of my sample. How do i do a similar thing for an independent t-test? Googling hasn't helped. Thank With hypothesis testing we are setting up a null-hypothesis - the probability that there is no effect or relationship - and then we collect evidence that leads us to either accept or reject that null hypothesis. 5. As you may recall, an independent-sample t-test attempts to compare an independent sample with another independent sample. 6 T-tests are used to compare the mean scores of two groups of people or conditions. There are two types of t-tests: Independent-samples t-test: compare the mean scores of two different groups of people or conditions.; Paired-samples t-test: compare the mean scores for the same group of people on two different occasions The Student's independent t-test assumes that the data from each group are from a normal distribution, and that the variances of these groups are equal. If unwilling to assume the groups have equal variances, the Welch's t-test can be used in it's place. If one is additionally unwilling to assume the data from each group are from a normal distribution, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U.

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